After the success of Carnival I, Blackwatch opted to test out the Blacklight virus on humans. For this purpose, they created an artificial town, Hope, Idaho, filled with a cross section of ethnicities and backgrounds. The cover story was that it was a military experiment to test self sufficient towns in case of a nuclear war. The virus was disguised as a "harmless" solution simulating fallout and the townsfolk eagerly participated in the tests, literally "rolling up their sleeves" for the researchers to inject them with the substance.
Formally, the project began on June 11, 1964. As part of it, 461 subjects were infected with DX-1118, a variant of Blacklight.
Initially, the results were nonexistent - unlike Carnival I chimps, humans did not exhibit any immediate changes or alterations. It was not until 1965 and the birth of the first of the so-called "Hope Children", that the effect of the virus manifested.
The experiment continued, despite the fact that most of the town was infected. It was not until the untimely death of the last of the Hope Children that the situation became critical, after 998 days without an outbreak (August 8, 1968) and the infected townspeople became hostile, controlled by the only perfect genetic match for the virus: Elizabeth Greene.
In 1969, in response to the biological threat, Blackwatch conducted Operation Altruistic, leveled the town and secured Elizabeth Greene and her child, codename Pariah, beginning a new era in biological research on July 7, 1969.